About General Tinio
Farming is the livelihood of majority of the residents. Even though located at the foot of the Sierra Madre Mountain Ridges, the topography is generally plain ideal to agricultural products such as palay and vegetables. A number of poultry broiler contract growers are located in the municipality. Other industries include furniture and fixtures, backyard poultry, cattle and livestock, vegetable production and minor agricultural livelihoods like duck raising.
"Ikmo" or betel leavesproduction is one dying symbol of the town. The practice of chewing betel leaves by the older generation was not adopted by the younger generation even though of its reported natural anti-cancer formula.
The remittances of numerous sons and daughters of Papaya abroad also help keep the economy of the town afloat. Papayanos can be relied to answer calls of assistance for the town's development.
Roman Catholic dominates religious disciplines with Methodist, Iglesia ni Cristo, Baptist, and other sects attracting its own followers. "Sabong" or cockfighting is the favorite pastime of the male population. The town's patron saint, San Isidro de Labrador is being feted every May 11.
The town is best known for having the most number of brass bands in the Philippines with 15 organized bands. These bands are sought after to enhance entertainment ambience in fiestas and other traditional rites such as wakes.
The Family Band '74 is the most popular one and have produced champions in majorette exhibition, solo flute competition, solo clarinet competition, solo trumpet competition, french horn competition, etc., in national brass band competitions.
The town also has other places of interest notably Minalungao National Park which is a favorite swimming destinations in summer specially during Black Saturday where it is usually filled with local bathers and visitors. Minalungao literally means "mine of gold in a cave" have several caves which can explored by more fearless ones attracting several visitors every summer. The river also has a portion where a stone ledge located about 15 meters high from the river can be used as spring board by fearless divers showing off to yearly visitors to the park.
Recently, the municipal council approved a resolution to rename the town back to it's original name "Papaya". Renaming will be pushed through after the townsfolk agreed for this renaming through a local plebiscite.
History of General Tinio
The Municipality of General Tinio started its humble beginning as visita Papaya of early missionaries in Pueblo Gapan as early as 1520’s. According to its oral history, Papaya got its name, when a native settler was asked by a Spanish soldier "Llama el pueblo?" and because the native did not understand the language, he replied "Papaya" referring to the particular fruit tree growing abundantly in the place. Since then, the place was called "Papaya".
Later it became Sitio Papaya of Barrio Mapisong of the town of Gapan, Nueva Ecija. In 1851, Barrio Mapisong was elevated into town status and was named as Peñaranda, after a Spanish Engineer, Jose Maria Peñaranda. Sitio Papaya then became its barrio. Under this era, Barrio Papaya was ruled by principales and cabeza de barangay. Some of the prominent cabeza came from the clans of Padolina, Bulacan, Bote, Aves, Bal and Calma. Cabeza de Barangay was responsible in the administration of collection of taxes and other fiscal matters in the barrio. The situation continued until the Spanish government met its bitter end in 1898.
During American period, civil government in Nueva Ecija was restored under Americans on June 11, 1901. Starting in 1903, the province of Nueva Ecija underwent reorganization process, municipalities were reduced and new ones were created. On March 10, 1917, by virtue of Act 2711, Barrio Papaya was elevated into town and was listed among municipalities of the Province of Nueva Ecija. On October 14, 1920, Governor General Francis Burton Harrison issued Executive Order No. 30 *separating Barrio Papaya, Barrio Rio Chico and Barrio Pias from the Municipality of Peñaranda to organize the independent town of Papaya *effective on January 1, 1921. Judge Segundo Bernardo, Francisco Padolina and Mamerto Padolina who was then working as Secretary of the Governor of Province of Nueva Ecija were instrumental in making the separation from Peñaranda possible. Cristobal Mangulabnan was appointed as Presidente and Martin Ramos was his Bise-Presidente. The first election for public office was held in 1922 where Getulio Bote was elected as Presidente and Martin Pajarillaga as Bise Presidente and served from 1922-1925.
Under American regime, the Americans implemented their policy of benevolent assimilation. They introduced changes reflecting the United States’ democratic way of life. Public works were implemented. In 1914, pursuant to Gabaldon Act of 1907, Papaya Elementary School (now West Central School) was established. More schools were constructed from 1936-1939, among them were Central Elementary School, Rio Chico Elementary School and Pias Elementary School.
Papayanos have high regard to education. For early Papayanos, bringing their children to school will give them brighter future; hence, obtaining diploma was the main goal of every Papayano Family. Most of Papayanos were mag-iikmo or betel farmer. Next to Palay,* Ikmo was the second product produced in the town of Papaya.* Due to lucrative sales and high demand for “ikmo” during Spanish period to American era, many Papayano families were able to send their children to colleges in Manila and other nearby provinces. Papaya was able to produced great number of professionals who were called “Bunga ng Ikmo”.**
When World War II broke out, the Japanese also conquered the town for three years. The Papaya Municipality became a puppet government of Japanese rulers. The people were deprived of properties, food supply and shelter. In order to survive, people were forced to eat root crops and evacuated to the mountains and remote sitios to evade Japanese oppression. Later, to pacify the people, the Japanese government opened the schools and introduced the Japanese Culture and ideals of East Asia Co-Prosperity using Nipongo as medium of education. The Papayanos, however, resented being subjected to Japanese authority. They organized a small guerilla unit which served as resistant movement against Japanese which later, became the 219 LGEF under Captain Getulio Bote Sr.
After Japanese pacification, Papayos rebuilt its government. Under the leadership of Mayor Getulio Bote, together with Bienvenido Abes and Superintendent Cenon Monasterial,Papaya Provincial High School (now General Tinio National High School) was established in 1946.
Papayano students returned to school and continue their pursuance to attain college degree. Many Papayanos became professionals and excelled in their field of endeavors. Eventually, the town became progressive. However, agriculture has always been considered the priority industry in Papaya.
Cattle and Poultry Raising were another business industries in the municipality which started in 1936.
The town was considered as “EGG BASKET OF THE PHILIPPINES” in 1950. Considering that Papaya has vast pasture land and located at the foothills of Sierra Madre Mountain, the town produced and supplied biggest number of cattle raised in Nueva Ecija. Every week, around fifty heads were sold and transported to different places, excluding those slaughtered for local consumption.
On June 20, 1957, R.A. No. 1665 was enacted, a congressional act sponsored by Congressman Celestino Juan that changed the name Papaya into General Tinio in honor of General Manuel Tinio*, who was the youngest General of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, and served important positions, such as, (1907) Governor of the Province of Nueva Ecija and (1913) First Filipino Director of Bureau of Lands.
In 1975, the Municipality of General Tinio had only Six (6) barrios namely: Rio Chico, Concepcion, Pias, Padolina, Bago and Nazareth. However upon the declaration of P.D. 86 by President Ferdinand E. Marcos, the number of barangay rose to (12) barangays. The Poblacion was divided into six (6) barangays composed of the following: *Poblacion Central, Poblacion West, Poblacion East, Pulong Matong, Sampaguita *and San Pedro. Palale was one of the sitios of Barangay Nazareth before it was taken by Palayan City and became its barangay in 1982. However, in 1999, under the leadership of Mayor Virgilio Abes Bote, the Municipality of General Tinio filed a territorial dispute to reclaim Palale from the City of Palayan. On September 7, 2006, by virtue of the Decision of Supreme Court First Division in G.R. No. 169089, Barangay Palale was declared as part of the territorial jurisdiction of the Municipality of General Tinio and became its 13th barangay.
The Municipality of General Tinio is the second largest municipality of the Province of Nueva Ecija with more or less 68, 229.29 hectares in land area which is politically subdivided into 13 barangays. The A & D land portions of the municipality covers an area of more or less 7,684.16 hectares or 14.08% of its total land area. The slope category of this land is generally level to rolling and in low lying elevation which is very suited for development into agriculture production areas. It is situated along the fertile delta of Peñaranda River and located 120 km. north of Manila and 32 km Southeast of Cabanatuan City. There are three gateways to the municipality, namely: Cabanatuan-Fort Magsaysay Road, Sta. Rosa – Nazareth Road and Gapan – Peñaranda Road.
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Youngest General of the Filipino Revolutionary Army
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